The colon is a tube like structure and if the colon suffers continues pressures, it causes the sac of the colon to bulge out in the form of a diverticula. These bulging sacs are mostly found at the end of the sigmoid colon. Patient having pouches on the colon may suffer from diverticulosis, where the pouches found on the colon ruptures and causes diverticula bleeding. The tissues surrounding the colon get infected to cause the disease. The problem is most common in the people of age above sixty in America and it is rare in people of Asia and Africa.
1. Age and Hereditary: The disease is rare in people below forty years but the problem increases with age. It is also common in people of same family.
2. Diet low in fibre: The diet which makes hard stool may be difficult to pass and regularly taking low fibre diet may cause the formation of diverticula.
The patient may not have any symptoms initially but if the diverticulum ruptures, the patient may suffer from many problems:
1. Pain in abdomen, which subsides after bowel movement
7. Cramps and blood in stool
In acute condition, the patient may suffer from dryness and loss of fluid, which increases thirst, dizziness, fainting and increased heart beat. In serious cases, the patient may have pus in the pelvis and bleeding in the colon.
In rare cases, the infection passes to the bladder and obstruct the bowel movement. The rectal can be seen carrying dark maroon color blood clots and bleeding may last for many days.
The patient is tested through barium x-ray tests and the doctors visualize the filled pouches of the colon. Visualization of the internal colon walls can be done through colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy. Ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis can be done to detect the presence of pus in the colon.
1. Patient suffering from mild pains may suffer from muscular spasm and drugs are given to reduce muscular spasm.
2. Patients are advised to reduce intake nuts, seeds and corn to prevent complication.
3. Patient suffering from acute diverticulosis, are advised to take food low in fibres.
4. Patients suffering from excess bleeding may have to be hospitalized and their blood pressure may drop. Surgery is done in cases, where the diverticula infects other parts of the body such as bladder or causes infection to the urine passage. The doctor removes the colon along with the diverticula to prevent further infections. Laparoscopy may be done to prevent operation pain.
No treatment is found for diverticulosis. A diet high in fibre should be taken, which includes fresh fruits, vegetables, cereals and bran. Food that contains indigestible roughage such as corn and celery should be avoided. Avoid eating too hot or too cold or spicy food. Alcohol and smoking irritates bowel movement and it should be avoided. People who are overweight should reduce their weight to prevent the problem. Drink at least 3-5 glasses of water in a day and eat homemade food.