Women above the age of forty years are at high risk of getting breast cancer but younger women can also suffer from the problem. And it has been found that seven percent women below forty years suffer from the cancer.
Factors that increase the risk of busts cancer are -
1. A history of cancer and non cancerous diseases of breast.
2. Family history of breast cancer where somebody in blood relation suffered from cancer.
3. Radiation therapy taken before the age of forty years increases the risk.
4. Genetic defects caused by gene mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2.
5. Gail index score having around 1.7 percent that uses the risk factor of family history, age, exposure to estrogen, number of pregnancy and biopsy.
6. Other risk factors are use of alcohol, age, intake of red meat, breast tissues very dense, obesity, use of contraceptive pills and ethical group.
7. Women who stops using contraceptive, has a reduced risk and women who takes contraceptives before twenty years are at a high risk of developing carcinoma.
1. Women may see a lump in busts on self examination.
2. Pain without any lump, which can cause thickening of tissues and enlargement.
3. A lump can be seen which appears differently from the nearby tissues. In certain conditions, the fibrocystic changes are also present and if only one of the busts has a thickness, it can indicate serious condition.
4. Mass over the skin and ulcers on skin.
5. Swelling in lymph nodes.
6. Blood secretions from nipples and inflammation.
In twenty five percent of the women above the age of fifty years, cancer has no symptom and it is advised to have frequent mammogram screening for women in the age of forty to fifty years.
An advanced stage of cancer can be detected through the marks and swelling, which is caused due to the blockage of the lymph nodes and if the lymph nodes are infected, then the problem cannot be cured through surgery.
To cure malignant tumor, biopsy is done and for biopsy the tissues from the busts are examined under a microscope.
Other form of diagnosis includes fine needle aspiration where the cells are taken out form the busts and examined.
The choice of treatment is decided by the patient's age and extends of the cancer.
1. For a fatty tissue tumor modified radical mastectomy is more and more getting adopted.
2. Radiation therapy can be done for reducing the recurrence of tumor.
3. Patient who are treated with radical mastectomy and then with radiation therapy have the advantage of taking up the bust conserving therapy. But removal of infected tissues and the nearby infected tissues provides a long term security against the disease and prevents recurrence.
4. In metastatic disease, the tumor spreads through the blood stream to other parts of the body such as liver, lungs and bones. Sometimes, metastasis is found in women after many years of treatment for breast cancer and in such cases, the women may have to consult her medical practitioner immediately.