Breast cancer diagnosed at an early stage can be completely cured and sometimes, the symptoms of breast cancer are confused with other physical conditions. Sometimes, it may happen without any symptoms and in such cases regular mammogram screening can be used to diagnose it. Women, who are at a high-risk such as women above forty years, should go for regular checkups to administer the disease.
1. Retraction of indentation of nipples
2. Thickening of skin and presence of hard lump
3. Swelling in the armpit (lymph nodes)
4. Change in the shape, color and texture of bust or the nipple
5. Redness and scales on the skin or nipples
6. Bloody discharge or abnormal discharge
7. Swelling and dimpling of the skin
8. Pain restricted to one bust
Women should regularly examine the changes of their breast to prevent tumor. Women who are above the age of forty years should be aware of the symptoms and she can even have regular mammogram screening to prevent the disease.
Breast examination: During a clinical examination the doctor may try to see the changes in shape and size by comparing the two busts. The medical practitioner feels the armpit to search for swelling.
Mammogram screening: Mammogram machines works like an X-ray that produces graphic images in which the internal parts such as tissue structure and lumps can be checked. To conduct a mammogram the doctor passes a set of radiation through the breasts and analyzes the graphics. Mammography can be done in two steps. Screening mammography in which, the different graphics is taken to diagnose and diagnostic mammography that is performed, to determine the need for more tests.
Ultrasonography: High frequency waves are passed through the tissues and the radiation produces graphics that have certain patterns, which can be seen in pictures. If any abnormality is found in mammogram screening, the doctor may suggest having an ultrasound.
MRI: Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to get the cross sectional images, from three direction such as side-to-side, front-to-back and top-to-bottom. The method has no harmful effects and it is one of the evolving techniques for diagnosis.
Biopsy: If there are certain abnormalities in the structure of tissues, the medical practitioner may conduct a biopsy. There are three types of biopsies: Large core biopsy, fine needle aspiration and biopsy that require a surgery.
Large core biopsy: A large core needle is used to withdraw the cells. The needles are attached to a spring device, which removes the plugs of the tissues of the suspected part.
Fine needle aspiration: A fine needle is inserted into the tissues and cells are withdrawn to analyze it.
Biopsy and surgery: In auxiliary dissection, the doctor may remove parts of the cells from the lymph nodes found in the armpit to diagnose it. Suspicious lumps are removed from the body and analyzed.
Pathology report: After the clinical breast examination, the lymph node status may be examined and a pathology report may be sought.